Montessori Cultural Programme 

Cultural activities lead the child to experience music, stories, artwork and items from the child’s community, society and cultural background. The areas of geography, science, zoology and botany are all included in this area. A range of globes, puzzle maps and folders containing pictures from different countries all help to give the child an insight into different cultures. The culture area encourages children to develop their capacity for creation, and develop fine motor skills. Whilst learning to freely express themselves. Through cultural activities, children develop an awareness and appreciation of the world around them

Cultural Studies

Geography Sandpaper Globe, Painted Globe, Land and Water Forms, Continents and Oceans, Land and Water forms definition cards, Map (World), Map (Child’s own continent), Geography folder
Botany Classification: Plants and Animals, nature table, parts of a tree, 3-part cards of: roots, trunk, leaves, flowers, fruits, seed
Zoology Classification: Living and non-living things, animals’ movement – fly, walk, swim.  Terrestrial/Aerial/Aquatic animals, Herbivores/Carnivores/Omnivores, Vertebrate/Invertebrates, Fish/Amphibian/Bird/Reptile/Mammal.

3-part Cards of Fish, Frog, bird, horse, insects

Animals’ Habitat, Animal Story 1 & 2

Science Parts of our Body, Five senses, Life cycle of: butterfly, frog, chicken.  How plants disperse their seeds? Parts of plant we eat, Healthy Eating, Food Groups, Food Source, Produce Source
Geology 3 states of matters, Sink and Float, Soluble & Insoluble, Natural & Artificial, Nature Resources, Forms of Energy, Types of Pollution, Seasons, Weather, Clouds, Rainbow, Water Cycle
History Name of days of the Week, Months of a Year, Personal Timeline, Calendar, Part/Present/Future, The Clock, The Story of the earth

Montessori Language Programme

Language materials are designed to enhance vocabulary and explore both written and spoken language. Through language-based activities, such as the sandpaper letters and the moveable alphabet, children learn phonetic sounds and how to compose words phonetically. They progress using concrete materials to compose their own written work, read the work of others, and learn to communicate their unique thoughts and feelings.

Mechanical Stage

  • A. Pre-Reading
    • 1. Enrichment of vocabulary, age 2.5 to 5 years
      1. a. Matching picture cards on a sensorial level
      2. b. Collection of pictures dealing with:i. Social environment
        ii. The farm
        iii. Transportation, etc
    • 2. Articulations, ages 2.5 to 5 years
      1. a. Oral games with sounds (e.g. “I spy with my little eye,” etc)
      2. b. Exercises with tongue (preparation of the mechanism)
      3. c. Encouragement of self-expression (child telling own experiences, etc)
      4. d. Language games (child adds to sentence, etc)
    • 3. Perceptual discrimination, ages 2.4 to 4 years
      1. a. Preparation of eye, hand, intellect
        i. Pairing cards and pictures
        ii. Wooden insets, puzzles, etc
      2. b. Preparation of ear
        i. Sound boxes
        ii. Montessori bells
  • B. Writing Preparation
    • 1. Sandpaper letters, ages 3 to 4.5 years
      1. a. Grouped sandpaper letters
    • 2. Metal insets, age 3.5 to 6 years
      1. a. Montessori designs for colouring
      2. b. The moveable alphabets, age 4 to 5
  • C. First introduction to spelling and reading – moveable alphabet
    • 1. Auditory dictated word building
    • 2. Objects-building correlated sounds for words (Parallel: Pink reading boxes)
    • 3. Pictures-building correlated sounds for words (Parallel: Pink reading boxes)

Interpretive Stage

  • A. First reading exercise – Phonetic objects games, age 4 to 5.5 years
    • 1. Box I (containing phonetic objects) – use with Moveable alphabet
    • 2. Box II (with phonetic objects and name cards
  • B. Reading of words (word study), 4.5 years
    • 1. Phonetic reading
        1. a. Sand paper blends
        2. b. Phonetic baskets

      i. Basket I Three letter phonetic words
      ii. Basket II Phonetic words with consonant blends
      iii. Basket III Phonetic words with double consonants
      iv. Basket IV Phonetic words with ’Y’ at the end making long ‘e’
      sound, plus more complex double consonant words

        1. c. Pink series
          i. Word lists
          ii. Paper with vowels for writing
          iii. Secret word slips
        2. d. Blue series
        3. e. Phonetic flashcards – 3,4, & 5 letter words and 2 syllable words

      i. Group games
      ii. Individual work

        1. f. Simple phonetic commands

      i. Action word written on chalkboard for children to discover and spontaneously act out
      ii. Command cards – group exercise
      eg. Booklets (child made, teacher made, commercially printed)

    • 2. Phonograms, age 5 onwards:
      • a. First level (Introduction with 2 different coloured, medium size moveable alphabets, and using same phonogram difficulty through this level.i. Object box
        ii. Pictures
        iii. Child’s own word selection
      • b. Second level, age 5.5 onwards:i. Introduction to new phonogram (using steps i. to iii. Above)
        ii. Eighteen baskets – phonograms and long vowel sounds
        iii. Phonogram words booklets
        iv. Phonogram word list cards
        v. Green boxes (phonogram level)
        vi. Selected reading resources
        vii. Sentence strips (Teacher made strip folded as booklet; word on left side, sentence using word on right side
        viii. Phonogram stories and booklets
    • 3. Irregular words, age 5.5 onwards:a. Puzzle wordsb. Non=phonetic commands (on red cards, graded to child’s ability – includes Nienhuis Grammar Commands experiment cards)
      c. Reading classification
      i. Printed labels for objects of the environment
      ii. Collection of matching pictures and cards (control card, matching
      picture, moveable label – classified nomenclature for life natural
      iii. Definition; key word in red
      iv. Definition; key word loose to be placed in context
      v. Definition; cut in strips, to be reconstructed
      vi. Definition; each word cut apart, to be reconstructed
  • C. Analysis of Language
    • 1. Introduction to Grammar, age 5.5 onwards:a. First Noun games
      i. Oral (Bring me….)
      ii. Cards (Black – placed on objects in the room)b. First Verb games
      i. Oral (Table)
      ii. cards (red – dramatize action)
    • 2. Grammar Study (for each new part of speech introduced, there are 3 levels of presentation
      1. a. Introduction of Noun (using farmyard)
      2. b. Introduction to the Article, Definite and Indefinite (Determiners)
      3. c. The Adjective (Modifier)i. Introduction (with farmyard)
        ii. Logical Agreement game, noun adjective
        iii. Detective Adjective game
        iv. Numerical Adjective game
      4. d. Introduction to the Verb
      5. e. Introduction to the Adverb
      6. f. Introduction to the Conjunction
      7. g. Introduction to the Preposition
      8. h. Introduction to the Pronouni. Further Grammar Exercises
        i. Collective Noun game
        ii. Words lists
        a) Synonyms
        b) Homonyms
        c) Antonyms
        d) Comparatives and Superlatives
        e) Prefixes, suffixes and compound words

    1. Parallel exercises (to be given during Grammar Study above)

    a. Singular – Plural

    b. Gender games – Masculine and Feminine


Language Presentation

 Mathematical concepts are introduced to the child using concrete sensorial materials. Initial explorations with sensorial materials encourage children to understand basic maths concepts such as learning number recognition, counting and sequencing of numbers. Sensorial work prepares the child for a more formal introduction to mathematics, and the introduction of abstract mathematical concepts such as the decimal system and mathematical operations.

 Montessori Mathematics Programme:

 Indirect preparation for Mathematics from Practical Life Exercises:

 Attitude of exactness, preciseness – All pouring exercises.

  1. Classify mentally – classify materials for care of self and care of environment.
  2. Ability to calculate – quantity of liquid jug for pouring.
  3. Movement and concentration – attention and focus while doing all exercises.
  4. Indirect preparation

Indirect preparation for Mathematics from Sensorial Exercises:

To make mathematical calculations, the following abilities are required:

  1. To discriminate (The cylinder blocks, The pink tower, The broad stairs, The red rods).
  2. Detect similarities and differences (The colour tablet, The touch tablets, The fabric tablets, The baric tablets, The sound cylinders, The thermic bottles and tablets, The tasting and smelling bottles).
  3. Recognition of a series (The cylinders, The pink tower, The broad stairs, The long rods, The sound boxes, The bells, The thermic bottles, and The colour tablets).
  4. Discerning relationships (The constructive triangles, The geometric solids, The geometric cabinet, The binomial cube, and The trinomial cube).
  5. Comparing series (The pink tower, The broad stairs, The cylinder blocks and The knobless cylinders).

All presentation of Mathematics exercises will follow the steps below:

  1. Concrete experiences
  2. Symbols to concrete representation
  3. Combination of 1 and 2

This procedure will happen consistently throughout the programme.

Montessori Mathematics programme is divided into five groups:

Group 1

Number rods

Sandpaper numbers

Spindle box

Cards and counters

Group 2

Introduction to the decimal system

Increasing and decreasing quantity or value of whole numbers

Group 3

Short bead stairs

Sequin boards

Linear counting

Step counting

Group 4

Memorization of numbers facts of all operations

Memorization addition

Memorization subtraction

Memorization multiplication

Memorization division

Group 5

Passage to abstraction

Stamp game

Short bead frame

Number bonds

Long bead frame


Mathematic Presentation

Montessori Practical Life

Montessori educators believe that children strive for independence and thrive in an environment that encourages them to take on the basic tasks of life. In the Practical Life curriculum, the exercises provide the children with many opportunities to work on these skills and to build the fine and gross motor movement and coordination to become more self-sufficient.

Practical Exercises:

    • Dressing Frames
      1. Large Button
      2. Small Button
      3. Velcro
      4. Press Studs
      5. Hook & Eyes
      6. Lacing
      7. Zip
      8. Bows
      9. Shoe Lacing
      10. Safety Pins
    • Dusting
    • Spooning
    • Pouring

      1. Dry pouring
      2. Wet pouring
    • Table Washing
    • Folding
    • Silver Polishing
    • Food Preparation
    • Hand Washing
    • Flower Arranging
    • Sewing
    • Rug Rolling
    • Silence Game
    • Paper Cutting
    • Grace and Courtesy

Children are brought by their very nature, to classify their environment and to explore the environment sensorially

By six months the child has developed the power to distinguish between one person, one object and another.  To do this the child must have realized differences within the environment.  The sense of order is very strong and supports this process.

The child will move on to independent movement, once mobile she/he will no longer be content to observe through eyes and ears, but begins to explore on a wider plane.

Exploration continues on via manipulative activity by the hand.  The environment should be stimulating, safe and provide freedom to choose.

Through exploratory activity the child gains knowledge of the qualities of objects in the environment.  The child then forms the classifying power to categorizes objects.

The depth of the child’s experience is dependent upon:

  • Quality of environment
  • Opportunity to interact with it.

Sensorial Materials

Sensorial Presentation